Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm Kinh nghiệm dạy đổi từ câu direct speech sang indirect speech

Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm Kinh nghiệm dạy đổi từ câu direct speech sang indirect speech

3. Mô tả các giải pháp cũ thường làm.

Cách đối lời nói trực tiếp sang gián tiếplà một điềm ngữ pháp tương đối khó và qui trình

chuyển đổi phức tạp, phải trải qua nhiều bước khác nhau ví dụ như khi nào đổi ngôi, khi

nào không đổi ngôi, cách đổi thì, đổi trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian ,trạng ngữ chỉ nơi chốn,

cách đổi đại từ sở hữu, tính từ sở hữu như thế nào làm cho học sinh cảm thấy khó

khăn và bối rối và từ đó dẫn đến thụ động trong giờ học.Nhiều học sinh không giải được

bài tập nguyên nhân xuất phát từ việc các em không hiểu và phân biệt các dạng câu

tường thuật, sử dụng sai cấu trúc chuyển đổi, sai động từ giới thiệu, sai chủ từ, tính từ sở

hữu ,tân ngữ, trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn và thời gian.Các em chưa xác định được đâu là người

nói , đâu là người nghe. Về phía giáo viên chưa phân loại ra từng loại câu để dạy và cũng

chưa đầu tư sâu vào bài giảng của mình.Vì vậy học sinh thường chỉ ngồi nghe khi giáo

viên giảng và sau đó sao chép lại nguyên văn những gì mà giáo viên truyền đạt . Chính vì

vậy các em thiếu sự tư duy sáng tạo trong quá trình học tập.

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i nhớ những thay đổi trong lời nói gián tiếp: 
 * Thay đổi thì của các động từ: trong lời nói gián tiếp thay đổi theo một nguyên tắc
chung là lùi về quá khứ (các thì xuống cấp):
Direct Speech Reported Speech
1. Present Simple:V1
Ex1: Nam said “I am told to be at 
school before 7 o’clock”
Ex2: He said “ I like beer”
2. Present Progressive: am/is/are 
+Ving
Ex: He said “I’m watching TV”
3. Present Perfect: has/have + V3/ed
Ex: He said “ I have just bought a 
new book”
4. Past Simple: V2/ed
Ex: They said “ We came by car ”
5. Past Progressive: was/were + V-
1. Past Simple:V2/ed
EX1: Nam said (that) he was told to be
at school before 7 o’clock.
Ex2: He said (that) He liked beer
2. Past Progressive:was/were+Ving
Ex: He said (that) he was watching TV
3. Past Perfect: had + V3/ed
Ex: He said (that) I had just bought a 
new book
4. Past Perfect: had + V3/ed
Ex: They said (that) they had come by
car
5. was/were+V-ing or Past Perfect 
2
ing
Ex: He said “I was sitting in the park 
at 8 o’clock”
6. Past Perfect: had + V3/ed
Ex: She said “ My money had run 
out”
7. Future Simple: will +V without to 
(V0)
Ex: Lan said “I’ll phone you”
8. can
Ex: He said “ you can sit here”
9. may
Ex: Mary said “I may go to Ha noi 
again”
10. must
Ex: He said “I must finish this 
report”
progressive
Ex:-He said ( that ) he was sitting in the
park at 8 o’clock”
- He said ( that )he had been sitting in 
the park at 8 o’clock”
6. Past Perfect: had + V3/ed
Ex: She said ( that) her money had run 
out
7. would + V without to ( Vo)
Ex: Lan said ( that) she would phone 
me
8. could
Ex : He said ( that) we could sit there
9. might
Ex: Mary said ( that) shemight go to Ha
noi again
10. must/ had to
Ex: He said ( that)he had to finish that 
report
* Chú ý: Một số trường hợp không đổi thì của động từ trong câu gián tiếp:
- Nếu động từ ở mệnh đề giới thiệu được dùng ở thì hiện tại đơn, hiện tại tiếp diễn, hiện
tại hoàn thành hoặc tương lai đơn, thì của động từ trong câu gián tiếp vẫn không thay
đổi
 Eg: He says/ he is saying/ he has said/ he will say, “the text is difficult”.
  He says/ is saying/ has said/ will say (that) the text is difficult.
- Khi câu nói trực tiếp thể hiện một chân lý hoặc một hành động lặp lại thường xuyên,
thì của động từ trong câu gián tiếp vẫn không thay đổi
 Eg: My teacher said “The sun rises in the East”
  My teacher said (that) the sun rises in the East.
 He said, ‘My father always drinks coffee after dinner’
  He said (that) his father always drinks coffee after dinner
- Nếu lúc tường thuật, điểm thời gian được đưa ra trong lời nói gián tiếp vẫn chưa qua,
thì của động từ và trạng từ thời gian vẫn được giữ nguyên
 Eg: He said, “ I will come to your house tomorrow”
 He said (that) he will come to my house tomorrow.
- Câu trực tiếp có dạng câu điều kiện loại 2 hoặc loại 3:
Eg: He said; “If I knew her address, I would write to her”
 He said that he would write to her If he knew her address 
 Eg: She said, “If I had enough money, I would buy a new bicycle.”
 She said (that) if she had enough money, she would buy a new bicycle.
3
 Eg: The teacher said, “If John had studied harder, he wouldn’t have failed his exam.”
 The teacher said (that) if John had studied harder, he wouldn’t have failed his exam.
 Tuy nhiên nếu lời nói trực tiếp là câu điều hiện loại 1 thì được chuyển sang loại 2 ở lời 
nói gián tiếp
 Eg: The advertisement said; “If you answer the questions correctly, 
you may win one million dollar”  The advertisement said that I might 
win one million dollar If I answered the questions correctly. 
- Không thay đổi thì của mệnh đề sau “wish’
 Eg: He said; “I wish I had a lot of money”
  He wishes (that) he had a lot of money 
- Không thay đổi thì của mệnh đề sau “It’s (high/ about) time”
 Eg: She said; “It’s about time you went to bed; children”
  She told her children that It’s about time they went to bed 
- Không thay đổi thì của mệnh đề đi sau ‘would rather, would sooner”
 Eg: She said; “I would rather you stayed at home”
  She said that she would rather I stayed at hone
- Không thay đổi thì của:
 Could, would, might, should 
Ought, had better, need trong câu nói gián tiếp 
Nhưng must -> had to/ must
Eg: She said; “I could do the homework 
 She said the she could do the homework 
- Động từ trong câu nói trực tiếp có thời gian xác định:
 Eg: He said, “I was born in 1980”
  he said that he was born in 1980.
- Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian trong câu phức có thì quá khứ đơn và quá khứ tiếp
diễn
Eg: “I saw him when he was going to the cinema”
 She said she saw him when she was going to the cinema
*Thay đổi về đại từ nhân xưng, đại từ sở hữu, tính từ sở hữu:
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
Ngoâi thöù 1 (1st
person)
 I
 me
 my
 mine
 myself
 we
 us
 our
 ours
 ourselves
Ngoâi thöù 3 (3rd
person)
 he , she
 him , her
 his , her
 his , hers
 himself , 
herself
 they
 them
 their
 theirs
 themselves
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
4
 You
 Your
 Yours
 Yourself
 I / we 
 My / our
 Mine / ours
 Myself / 
ourselves
*Ñoåi moät soá tính töø chæ ñònh vaø traïng töø hoaëc cuïm traïng
töø chæ nôi choán, thôøi gian.
DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
Time
- now
- today
- tonight
- tomorrow
- next week
- next month
- yesterday
- last night
- last week
- last month
- ago
- then / immediately / at that
time
- that day
- that night
- the next day / the following
day / the day after 
- the following week / the 
week after
- the following month / the 
month after
- the day before / the 
previous day
- the night before / the 
previous night
- the week before / the 
previous week
- the month before / the 
previous month
- before / earlier
Place - Here - There
Demonstrati
ve heads
- This
- These
- That
- Those
* Chú ý:
- NÕu têng thuËt vÉn cïng ë 1 ®Þa ®iÓm vµ thêi gian, chóng ta
kh«ng thay ®æi th× cña ®éng tõ, tÝnh tõ chØ ®Þnh vµ tr¹ng ng÷
thêi gian vµ n¬i chèn.
 Eg: He said “ I will come here to take this book tonight”.
  An hour ago he said he will come here to take this book
tonight.
- Thªm liªn tõ vµo c©u têng thuËt chØ nguyªn nh©n
Eg: She said “ I am very tired I have worked overnight.”
  She said she was very tires because she had been worked
d/ Phân loại theo từng dạng để dạy cho học sinh cách đổi: 
 *Tường thuật một câu trần thuật.( Reported speech of statement)
5
S + said (to + O) + that S + V
S + told + O + that+ S + V.
 Eg: ‘We will have a test tomorrow’, My teacher said.
 -> My teacher said (that) they would have a test the next day.
*Note: Có thể sử dụng một số ĐT dẫn sau: thought, announced, explained, 
complained, believed
* Tường thuật dạng câu mệnh lệnh.((Imperative in reported speech)
 Khi ®æi c©u mÖnh lÖnh trùc tiÕp thµnh c©u mÖnh lÖnh gi¸n
tiÕp, cÇn lu ý:
 + §éng tõ têng thuËt lµ: ordered, commanded (ra lÖnh), requested,
asked (yªu cÇu), told (b¶o lµm )
 + T©m ng÷ trùc tiÕp chØ ngêi nhËn mÖnh lÖnh ®îc nªu lªn.
 + H×nh thøc mÖnh lÖnh cña ®éng tõ trong c©u mÖnh lÖnh trùc
tiÕp ®æi thµnh ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ.
(+) He/ she + ordered + object + to infinitive
 commanded
told
asked
requested
 Eg: “Please wait for a minute.” The man asked me
  The man asked me to wait for a minute.
 “Would you mind opening the door” she asked me.
 She asked me to open the door.
 He said to the waiter, “ Please bring me some hot water.”
  He told to the waiter to bring him some hot water.
 I said to her “Please shut the window.”
  I asked her to shut the window.
(-) He/ she + ordered + object not to + infinitive
told
asked
 Eg: “ Please don’t talk loudly”.
  He asked me not to talk loudly.
 He said “Don’t shut the door”.
  He asked me not to shut the door.
*Tường thuật dạng câu hỏi Yes/ No.
Khi đổi câu tương thuật dạng Yes/ No questions cần chú ý những điểm sau:
6
 Duøng ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu “ ask, inquire, wonder, want
to know ”
“Ask”coù theå ñöôïc theo sau bôûi taân ngöõ tröïc tieáp (He asked me
), nhöng “ inquire, wonder, want to know ” thì khoâng coù taân
ngöõ theo sau (NOT He wondered me ) 
 Duøng “If / whether” ngay sau ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu cuûa
meänh ñeà chính .( If / whether coù nghóa “ coù  khoâng ”)
 Ñoåi caáu truùc caâu hoûi thaønh caâu traàn thuaät.
 Ñoåi ñaïi töø, tính töø sôû höõu, thì cuûa ñoäng töø vaø caùc
traïng töø chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán (gioáng caùch ñoåi caâu traân
thuaät)
 Boû daáu chaám hoûi
 S + asked + (O ) + If / whether
+ S + V + 
Ex: 
 - He said, “ Do you know Bill ?”
 -> He asked me if / whether I knew Bill.
 - “ Will Tom be here tomorrow? ” Mary wondered.
 -> Mary wondered if / whether Tom would be there the
day after.
 - The visitors asked, “ Can we take photos ?”
 -> The visitors wanted to know if / whether they could
take photos .
- Tường thuật dạng câu hỏi WH- question
 Câu hỏi Wh – questions: ( wh – questions)
 Trong lời nói gián tiếp câu hỏi WH – questions được đổi như sau:
 Duøng caùc ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu : “ ask, inquire, wonder, want
to know ”
 Laëp laïi caùc töø hoûi (who, what, when, where, why, how )
sau ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu
 Ñoåi traät töï caâu hoûi thaønh caâu traàn thuaät.
 Ñoåi ñaïi töø, tính töø sôû höõu, thì cuûa ñoäng töø vaø caùc
traïng töø chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán 
 Boû daáu chaám hoûi
S + asked + (O ) + who / what / when / where / why /
how + S + V + 
Ex:
 - He said,“ What time does the film begin ?”
 -> He wanted to know what time the film began.
 - Mary said to Nam: “What do you read?”
 -> Mary asked Nam what he read.
7
 - “ How far is it to the school, Lan?” Nam asked. 
 -> Nam asked Lan how far it was to her school
 Notes: 
- Khi tường thuật câu có cấu trúc Who/ which/what + be + complement thì khi đổi
be có thể được đặt trước hay sau bổ ngữ.
Ex: 
 - Who’s the best player?
 -> She asked me who was the best player. / She asked me who the best
player was.
 - Which is my seat?
 -> She wondered which was her seat. / She wondered which her seat was.
- Động từ giới thiệu trong mệnh đề chính ở thì hiện tại đơn ,hiện tại tiếp diễn, nhiện tại
hoàn thành và tương lai đơn thì thì của động từ gián tiếp không đổi.
 Ex:
 - Has the taxi arrived yet?
 -> She is wondering if / whether the taxi has arrived yet.
- Where can we stay? 
 -> They want to know when they can stay.
* Caùc caâu dieãn taû lôøi ñeà nghò, lôøi höùa, lôøi khuyeân, lôøi môøi, v.v. trong
lôøi noùi giaùn tieáp ( Offers,
promises, advice, invitations, ect. in indirect speeches)
 Lôøi ñeà nghò, lôøi höùa, lôøi khuyeân, lôøi môøi, v.v. thöôøng ñöôïc
töôøng thuaät baèng caùc ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu: offer, recommend,
promise, advise, encouage, invite, agree, remind, warn, urge,  .Khi ñoåi
sang caâu töôøng thuaätñeàu coù chung daïng nhö sau :
 S + offer / recommend / promise / advise  ( +O )
+ to-infinitive. 
 Ex: 
 - They said:“We’ll pay for the meal”
 -> They offered to pay for the meal. 
 ( = They said that they would pay for the meal. )
 - John said: “ I ‘ll write for you”.
 -> John promised to write for me.
 ( = John promised that he would write for me.)
 - Tom said: “ You should / ought to take a taxi, Mary”.
 -> Tom advised Mary to take a taxi. 
 (= Tom told Mary that she should / ought to take a taxi.)
 Notes: 
- Cấu trúc “ Can / Could / Will / Would you , please ? hoặc Would / Do you
mind + V-ing ?” được xem như là câu yêu cầu
 Ex: 
 - “Could you pass me the salt, please?”
 -> He asked / told me to pass him the salt.
 - Cấu trúc“ Would you like ? Được xem như lời mời
8
 Ex:
 - “Would you like to go to the movies?
 -> He invited me to go to the movies.
 - Cấu trúc “Shall I / we ? Và “Can I ? Được xem như lời đề nghị.
 Ex:
 - “Shall I carry your bags?, the porter said.
 -> The porter offered to carry my bags.
 - Cấu trúc If I were  được xem như lời khuyên
 Ex:
 - “If I were you, I would stop smoking.”
 -> She advised me to stop smoking.
 - Cấu trúc “ Let’s  / Shall we  ? hoặc Why don’t  ? được xem như lio72 gợi ý 
và được tường thuật lại bằng: “ suggest + V-ing / that clause.
 Ex:
 - The guide said, “ Let’s stop for a rest.”
 -> The guide suggested stopping for a rest.
 -> The guide suggested that we / they should stop for a rest. 
* SOME SPECIAL STRUCTURES FOR 
EXCELLENT STUDENTS (Duøng cho hoïc sinh khaù, gioûi) 
- Neáu caâu tröïc tieáp coù daïng nhö: 
 “Will you?” “Do you mind?” Laø hình thöùc caâu hoûi nhöng thöïc 
chaát laø caâu yeâu 
 “Can you?” “Could you? ” caàu ra leänh. Vaäy khi chuyeån sang 
lôøi noùi giaùn tieáp 
 “Would you mind” ta aùp duïng caáu truùc caâu meänh leänh. 
Ex1: He said to me; “Would you mind not smoking here?”
-> He told me not to smoke there 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp coù daïng lôøi höùa : (aùp duïng caáu 
truùc sau): 
S + promised + to verb
Ex: “We’ll come back again”
-> They promised to come back again 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû ñieàu mong muoán nhö: would
like, wish (aùp duïng 
caáu truùc sau): 
S + wanted + obj + to verb
Ex: “I’d like Lan to become a doctor,” my mum said 
-> My mum wanted Lan to become a doctor 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû söï ñoàng yù veà quan ñieåm nhö:
all right, yes, of course (aùp duïng caáu truùc sau): 
S + agreed + to verb
Ex: “All right, I’ll wait for you” he said; 
-> He agreed to wait for me 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp coù daïng lôøi caûnh baùo nhö: be careful, 
be dangerous (aùp duïng caáu truùc): coù hai daïng sau: 
9
a. S + warned + s.o + to verb
b. S + warned + s.o + against + v-ing 
ex1: “Be careful of strangers and don’t go out at night”; he said 
-> He warned us to be careful strangers and not to out at night 
Ex2: “Don’t stay at the near the airport,” I said to Ann
-> I warned Ann against staying at the hotel near the airport
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû söï chaéc chaén (ta aùp duïng caáu
truùc sau) 
S + guaranted + to verb
Ex: “I can get you there in good time”; jim said. 
-> Jim guaranted to get me there in good time 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû söï caûm ôn ai (aùp duïng caáu 
truùc sau) 
S + thanked + s.o + for + v-ing
Ex: “It was nice of you to help me. Thanked you very much,” Tom said 
to you 
-> Tom thanked me for helping him 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû lôøi xin loãi ai nhö: sorry (aùp 
duïng caáu truùc sau) coù hai daïng 
a. S + apologized for + (not) + v-ing 
b. S + apologized + to + s.o + for + (not) + v-
ing 
Ex1: “I’m sorry I didn’t phone you earlier,” Mary said 
-> Mary apologized for not phoning me earlier 
Ex2: “I’m sorry I couldn’t come to visit you last summer” kate said 
-> Kate apologized to me for not coming to visit me last summer
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû söï chuùc möøng ai (aùp duïng 
caáu truùc sau) 
S + congratulated + s.o + on + v-ing
Ex: “I hear you passed your exams. Congratulations!” John said to us. 
-> Tom congratulated us on passing our exams 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû söï naøi næ ai (aùp duïng caáu 
truùc sau) 
S + insisted + on + v-ing
Ex: “I’ll drive you to the station. I insist,” Peter said to Linda
-> Peter insisted on driving Linda to the station 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû söï buoäc toäi ai (aùp duïng caáu 
truùc sau) 
S + accused + s.o + of + (not) + v-ing
Ex: “You didn’t pay attention to what I said,” the teacher said to the 
boy 
-> The teacher accused the boy of not paying attention to what he had
said 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû veà söï mô öôùc (aùp duïng caáu 
truùc sau) 
S + dreamed + of + v-ing
Ex: “I’ve always wante to be rich, ” Bob said 
-> Bob had always dreamed of being rich
10
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû söï ngaên, ngöøa khoâng cho ai 
laøm gì (aùp duïng caáu truùc) 
S + prevented, stopped + s.o + from + v-ing
Ex: “Stay here! I can’t let you go out tonight,” her mother said to Jane
-> Her mother prevented Jane from going out that night 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû söï mong ñôïi (aùp duïng caáu 
truùc sau) 
S + looked forward to + v-ing
Ex: “Mr.Smith: I feel like meeting our children soon”
 Mrs Smith: I think so 
-> Mr and Mrs. Smith looked forward to meeting their children soon 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû söï töø choái, hay phuû nhaän 
(aùp duïng caáu truùc sau) 
S + denied + v-ing
Ex: Woman: Hey! You’ve broken the window of my house! 
Boy: Ohno, I’ve just arrived here. I don’t know anything about it 
-> The boy denied having broken the window of the woman’s house 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû söï chaáp nhaän (aùp duïng caáu 
truùc sau) 
S + admitted + v-ing
Detective: You have stolen Mrs. Brown’s car!
The thief|: Yes! But 
-> The thief admitted stealing/having stolen Mrs Brown’s car 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp dieãn taû söï suy nghó veà caùi gì (aùp 
duïng caáu truùc sau) 
S + think (thought) + of +v-ing
Ex: John’s wife: The house is very nice! We’ll certainly buy it 
John : I think so 
-> John and his wife were thinking of buying the house. 
- Caâu caûm thaùn (Exclamation): coù hai kieåu.
a. 
b. 
How
+
Adj + S +
V!+ 
Adv
Khi gaëp caâu tröïc tieáp hai daïng naøy chuùng ta aùp duïng coâng
thöùc sau ñaây khi chuyeån sang lôøi noùi giaùn tieáp. 
 S1 + exclaimed + that + S2 + verb + S.o + adj/adv 
S1 + exclaimed + that + S2 + verb + such a/an +(adj) + 
noun
Ex1: She said; “What a pity!” (Direct speech) 
-> She exclaimed that it was such a pity! (Indirect speech)
Ex2: I said; “What a nice horse”
-> I exclaimed that it was such a nice hoese
11
Wha
t
+ Noun!
+ Adj +
noun!
Ex3: He said; “How beautiful she is”! 
-> He exclaimed that she was so beautiful! 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp coù daïng nhö: 
“Let’s, “Shall we” Khi chuyeån sang lôøi noùi giaùn tieáp 
“Why don’t you? ” ta aùp duïng caáu truùc döôùi ñaây 
 S1 + suggest (ed) + V-ing 
S1 + suggest (ed) + That + S2 + 
Ex: He said to me; “Let’s go home”
-> He suggested going home 
-> He suggested that we should go home 
- Trong tröôøng hôïp caâu tröïc tieáp coù daïng laø lôøi môøi 
nhö: 
 “Would you like?” Khi chuyeån sang lôøi noùi giaùn 
tieáp 
“How a bout?” ta aùp duïng caáu truùc döôùi 
ñaây 
S + Offer(ed) + some body / something (no verb) 
S + Invited + somebody + to verb
Ex1: She said to me; “How about some coffee”
-> She said me some coffee 
Ex2: He said to her; “Would you like to dance with me?”
-> He invited her to dance with him 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp coù daïng lôøi khuyeân nhö: 
“Should ” “Ought to” Khi chuyeån sang lôøi noùi giaùn 
tieáp ta 
“Had better”“If were you” aùp duïng caáu truùc sau
S + advised, encouraged, recommended + v-ing or object to 
infinitive verb
S + advised, encouraged, recommended + object to infinitive verb
 Ex1: “You should stop smoking” he said 
-> He adivised stopping smoking 
-> He adivised me to stop smoking 
Ex2: He said; “If I have you, I would buy this house”
-> He adivised buying that house 
-> He adivised me to buy that house 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp coù daïng lôøi nhaéc nhôû nhö sau: 
“Remember” khi chuyeån sang lôøi noùi giaùn tieáp 
“Don’t forget” ta aùp duïng caáu truùc sau 
S + remind(ed) + someboby + to Infinitive verb
Ex: She said to me; “Don’t forget to ring me up tomorrow 
evening”
-> She reminded me to ring her up the bext eveining 
- Caâu tröïc tieáp laø lôøi hoûi xin, yeâu caàu nhö sau: 
“I’d like” “Can I have?” khi chuyeån sang lôøi noùi 
giaùn tieáp 
12
should + bare verb
 bare verb 
“Could I have?” ta aùp duïng caáu truùc sau
S + asked + someboby + for + something
Ex: In a restaurant, the man said; “I’d like a bottle of red wine, 
please”
-> The man asked for a bottle of red wine 
- Moät soá tröôøng hôïp khoâng thay ñoåi thì khi chuyeån 
sang lôøi noùi giaùn 
tieáp nhö: 
+ Caâu tröïc tröïc tieáp coù daïng caâu ñieàu kieän loaïi 2 vaø 
loaïi 3 chuùng ta khoâng 
ñoåi thì cuûa ñoäng töø. 
Ex: He said; “If I knew her address, I would

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