Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm Dạy lồng ghép từ đồng nghĩa và trái nghĩa vào các bài học trong SGK Tiếng Anh lớp 12 và thiết kế một số bài tập về từ đồng nghĩa và trái nghĩa

Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm Dạy lồng ghép từ đồng nghĩa và trái nghĩa vào các bài học trong SGK Tiếng Anh lớp 12 và thiết kế một số bài tập về từ đồng nghĩa và trái nghĩa

III.3. Dạng bài tập “Multiple choices” – trắc nghiệm

Bài tập này yêu cầu học sinh nhận ra từ đồng nghĩa hoặc trái nghĩa trong một số phương án lựa chọn

Exercise: Choose the best word/phrase that is CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined part in each of the following questions.

 1. Women whose husbands do not contribute to the domestic chores are more vulnerable to illness.

 A. able to be well protected B. able to be easily hurt

 C. able to be well known D. able to be equally treated

2. In many cultures, the mother is usually the homemaker while the father is the breadwinner.

 A. the family member who is willing to share the domestic chores

 B. the family member who likes bread

 C. the family member who is responsible for childcare

 D. the family member who earns money to support the family

 

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a đã học vào việc nói và viết tiếng Anh.
Đây chính là nguyên tắc “học đi đôi với hành”, nhằm khuyến khích học sinh sử dụng kiến thức đã có trong các kĩ năng sản sinh ngôn ngữ là nói và viết. Việc này phải được tiến hành thường xuyên để tạo thành một thói quen trong việc sử dụng ngoại ngữ của học sinh.
III. Thiết kế một số dạng bài tập về từ đồng nghĩa và trái nghĩa
Việc thiết kế các dạng bài tập là nhiệm vụ của giáo viên thường làm sau mỗi phần kiến thức được dạy trên lớp. Mặc dù nó là một công việc thường làm, vẫn có một số điều chúng ta cần chú ý. Một là, việc thiết kế bài tập phải đảm bảo học cái gì thì thực hành và luyện tập cái đó. Điều này để đảm bảo tính hiệu quả của bài tập mà chúng ta tạo ra. Hai là, các dạng bài tập được thiết kế phải đa dạng, phong phú gồm nhiều cấp độ từ dễ đến khó. Việc này giúp phù hợp với các nhóm học sinh khác nhau và tạo hứng thú cho học sinh.
III.1. Dạng bài tập “Matching” - ghép hai từ đồng nghĩa, trái nghĩa
Đây là dạng bài tập dễ. Học sinh chỉ cần nhớ lại kiến thức đã học là có thể hoàn thành phần này.
Unit 1: Home Life
Exercise 1. Match the word in column A with its synonym in colum B
Column A
Column B
1. brothers/sisters
a. write down
2. base
b. theme
3. wash the clothes
c. regulation
4. rule
d. irritate 
5. topic
e. data
6. wait
f. foundation
7. information 
g. gather
8. note down
h. do the laundry
9. collect
i. siblings
10. annoy
j. hold on/ hang on 
Đáp án
Exercise 1: 1.i	2. f	3. h	4. c	5. b 	6. j 	7. e 	8. a	9. g 	10. d 
Exercise 2. Match the word in column A with its antonym in colum B
Column A
Column B
1. supportive
a. neglect
2. willing
b. depressed 
3. obedient
c. ban 
4. take care of
d. critical
5. happy
e. indifferent 
6. allow 
f. at a loose end 
7. hard-working 
g. costly 
8. busy
h. reluctant
9. cheap
i. naughty
10. interested 
j. idle 
Đáp án
Exercise 2: 1.d	2. h 	3. i 	4. a	5. b	6. e 	7. c	8.j	9. f 	10. g
Unit 2: Cultural Diversity
Exercise 3. Match the word in column A with its synonym in colum B
Column A
Column B
1. diversity
a. reply
2. flat
b. home for the aged 
3. job
c. present
4. respond
d. party 
5. confide in 
e. variety
6. careful
f. commence 
7. start
g. apartment 
8. gift
h. share one’s thoughts
9. nursing home
i. occupation
10. banquet 
k. thorough
Đáp án
Exercise 3: 1.e	2. g 	3. i 	4. a	5. h	6. k 	7. f	8.c	9. b 	10. d
Exercise 4. Match the word in column A with its antonym in colum B
Column A
Column B
1. difference
a. minority
2. follow
b. temporary
3. majority
c. pessimistic
4. reject
d. be under no obligation 
5. modern
e. tell the truth 
6. permanent 
f. similarity
7. optimistic 
g. deteriorate 
8. be obliged
h. accept
9. lie 
i. traditional
10. better
k. precede
Đáp án
Exercise 4: 1.f	2. k 	3. a 	4. h	5. i	6.b 	7. c	8.d	9. e 	10.g 
Unit 3: Ways of socializing
Exercise 5. Match the word in column A with its synonym in colum B
Column A
Column B
1. suitable 
a. apparent
2. obvious
b. good-natured 
3. choice 
c. severe
4. polite 
d. purchase
5. buy
e. appropriate
6. stick to
f. gripping 
7. kind-hearted
g. hue
8. interesting
h. option
9. serious
i. be loyal to
10. color
k. courteous
Đáp án
Exercise 5: 1.e	2. a 	3. h 	4. k	5. d	6. i 	7. b 	8.f	9. c 	10. g
Exercise 6. Match the word in column A with its antonym in colum B
Column A
Column B
1. get off
a. take a call
2. modern
b. prohibitten 
3. leave a message 
c. politeness
4. make a call
d. maximum
5. acceptable 
e. get on
6. discourtesy
f. body language 
7. minimum
g. reveal 
8. verbal language 
h. take a message
9. conceal 
i. failure 
10. success
k. old-fashioned 
Đáp án
Exercise 6: 1.e	2. k 	3. h 	4. a	5. b	6. c 	7. d 	8.f	9. g	10. i
III.2. Dạng bài tập “Odd one out” – chọn từ khác loại
Ở dạng bài tập này học sinh phải nhận ra một từ không cùng nghĩa hoặc trái nghĩa với các từ còn lại. Để làm bài tập này, học sinh phải nhớ được các nhóm từ đồng nghĩa hoặc trái nghĩa với nhau.
Unit 1: Home Life
Exercise 1: Find one word that is different in meaning from the others
1. housework, household chores, domestic tasks, household duties, daily tasks 
2. help, give a hand, owe, assist, aid
3. try, eliminate, endeavor, strive, make an effort, attempt
4. build, construct, put up, ruin, erect
5. child, kid, infant, gentleman 
6. place, space, site, spot 
7. sometimes, occasionally, frequently, from time to time 
8. important, creative, vital, crucial, significant
9. hobby, interest, perseverance, taste
10. task, complement, duty, mission 
Đáp án
Exercise 1: 
1. daily tasks	2. owe	3. eliminate	4. ruin	5. gentleman
6. space	7. frequently	 8. creative	9. perserverance	10. complement
Unit 2: Cultural Diversity
Exercise 2: Find one word that is different in meaning from the others
1. idea, view, point of view, opinion, objection
2. love sb, fall in love with sb, interfere with sb, fall with sb, take to sb
3. choose, select, opt, pick out, reckon, decide on, agree on
4. conduct a survey, make a survey, carry out a survey, cancel a survey
5. main, key, primary, vicious, major, core
6. famous, well-known, renowned, excessive, celebrated, notable, pretigious
7. take part in, participate in, result in, engage in, join, attend
8. however, nevertheless, on the contrary, additionally, by contrast, controversially
9. rich, wealthy, middle-class, well-off, affluent
10. dangerous, disastrious, hazardous, perilous, risky
Đáp án
Exercise 2: 
1. objection	2. interfere with sb	3. reckon	4. cancel a survey	5. vicious
6. excessive	7. result in	8. additionally 9. middle-class	10. disastrious
Unit 3: Ways of socializing
Exercise 3: Find one word that is different in meaning from the others
1. terrible, awful, dreadful, accessible 
2. problem, difficulty, trouble, amenity, obstacle
3. argument, appointment, row, quarrel
4. beginning, provision, start, rudiment 
5. hate, detest, spark, loathe, dislike
6. friend, colleague, mate, pal, company
7. big, huge, giant, skeptical, mighty, gigantic, bulky
8. like, enjoy, love, fancy, adore, detect
9. mistake, error, fault, apology
10. attack sb’s attention, get sb’s attention, distract sb’s attention, catch sb’s attention
Đáp án
Exercise 3:
1. accessible 	2. amenity 	3. appointment 	4. provision 	5. spark
6. colleague	7. skeptical	8. detect	9. apology	10. distract sb’s attention
III.3. Dạng bài tập “Multiple choices” – trắc nghiệm
Bài tập này yêu cầu học sinh nhận ra từ đồng nghĩa hoặc trái nghĩa trong một số phương án lựa chọn
Exercise: Choose the best word/phrase that is CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined part in each of the following questions. 
 1. Women whose husbands do not contribute to the domestic chores are more vulnerable to illness.
	A. able to be well protected	B. able to be easily hurt
	C. able to be well known	D. able to be equally treated
2. In many cultures, the mother is usually the homemaker while the father is the breadwinner.
	A. the family member who is willing to share the domestic chores
	B. the family member who likes bread
	C. the family member who is responsible for childcare
	D. the family member who earns money to support the family
3. We enjoy spending time together in the evening when the family members assemble in the living room after a day of working hard.
 A. get together	B. watch TV	C. chat	D. tell jokes
4. She got up late and rushed to the bus stop.
 A. came into 	B. went leisurely 	C. went quickly 	D. dropped by
5. It will take more or less a month to prepare for the wedding.
 A. approximately 	B. generally 	C. frankly 	D. appreciatively 
6. This is the instance where big, obvious non-verbal signals are appropriate.
A. situation. 	B. attention 	C. place 	D. matter
7. When you are in a restaurant, you can raise your hand slightly to show that you need assistance.
A. bill	 	B. menu 	C. help 	D. food
8. Peter: In my opinion, old aged parents should lead independent lives in nursing homes
 Nam: I disagree with you. Children should take after their elderly parents.
A. You can say that again
B. I can’t agree with you any more
C. There’s no doubt about that
D. That’s not a good idea.
9. Although I live in London for one year, I’m not used to driving on the left.
A. accustomed
B. familiar 
C. looking forward
D. supportive
10. Quan Ho singing, a traditional kind of music, originated in Bac Ninh Province in the 13th century.
A. launched
B. took its origin 
C. initiated 
D. appeared 
Đáp án
1. B
2. D
3. A
4. C
5. A
6. A
7. C
8. D
9. A
10. B
III.4. Dạng bài tập “Replacement” – thay thế
Bài tập này học sinh phải nhớ được không chỉ nghĩa mà cả cách viết các từ đồng nghĩa và trái nghĩa và tự viết lại các từ này.
Exercise: Replace the underlined word or phrases with its synonyms
1. Our parents join hands to give us a nice house and a happy home.
2. Whenever we hurt someone’s feeling, we apologize.
3. Members of my family share the household chores.
4. Andrea can’t wait for her flight.
5. In an extended family, three or even four generations live in one home.
6. She complimented me on my new shirt.
7. Members of our family have very close relationships with each other.
8. Could you please look after the baby while I’m away? 
9. My parents seldom allow telling lies in my family.
10. A survey was made to determine their attitudes toward love and marriage.
Đáp án
1. work together	2. made an apology
3. do our share of	4. look forward to
5. joint family/ under the same roof	6. paid me a nice compliment 
7. get on very well	8. keep an eye on
9. rarely/lying 	10. find out
III.5. Dạng bài tập “Paraphrasing”- diễn giải
Đây là dạng bài tập tổng hợp, học sinh phải viết lại các câu sử dụng các từ đồng nghĩa và các cấu trúc đồng dạng.
Exercise: Paraphrase the following sentences
1. I’m 28 years old.
2. She is a doctor in a local hospital.
3. There are four people in my family.
4. I help my mother with some housework such as cleaning the house and taking out the garbage.
5. It is undeniable that families play an important part in our lives.
6. Not only my dad but also my mum works and support the family. 
7. The bride and the groom thanked all the guests for their presence best wishes.
8. To attract someone’s attention, we can use either verbal or non-verbal forms of communication. 
9. In America, it’s impolite to ask questions about age, marriage and income.
10. You had better not take calls during meal time. 
Đáp án
1. I’m an 28-year-old girl
 I’m in my late twenties
2. She works as physician in a local hospital 
3. I come from a family of four people
 I was born into a family of four people 
4. I give my mum a hand with some domestic tasks like tidying up the house and emptying the rubbish.
5. Nobody can deny the importance of families in our lives
6. Both my parents go out to work and provide for the family
7. The couple expressed their special gratitude to all the participants for their presence and blessings. 
8. In order to draw other people’s attention, either verbal or non-verbal forms of communication can be used.
9. It’s considered discourteous to ask Americans questions about age, marriage and income.
10. You are advised not to take calls when having meals.
	IV. Một số bài tập trắc nghiệm về từ đồng nghĩa và trái nghĩa trong các đề thi THPT Quốc Gia
Đề thi tốt nghiệp THPT Quốc Gia năm 2015
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word(s)CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
Question 1: When Susan invited us to dinner, she really showed off her culinary talents. She prepared a feast – a huge selection of dishes that were simply mouth-watering.
A. having to do with food and cooking
B. involving hygienic conditions and diseases
C. relating to medical knowledge
D. concerning nutrition and health
Question 2: Suddenly, it began to rain heavily, so all the summer hikers got drenched all over.
A. cleansed	B. completely wet	C. very tired	D. refreshed
Question 3: “It’s no use talking to me about metaphysics. It’s a closed book to me.”
A. a subject that I don’t understand	B. a theme that I like to discuss 
C. a book that is never opened	D. an object that I really love	
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
Question 4: "Don't be such a pessimist. I'm sure you'll soon get over it. Cheer up!"
A. activist	B. hobbyist	C. optimist	D. feminist
Question 5: "Be quick! We must speed up if we don’t want to miss the flight. "
A. turn down 	B. look up 	C. slow down 	D. put forward
Đáp án
1. A
2. B
3. A
4. C
5. C
Đề tuyển sinh Cao đẳng năm 2014
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) .
Question 1: John wants to buy a new car, so he starts setting aside a small part of his monthly earnings. 
A. spending on 	B. using up 	C. putting out 	D. saving up 
Question 2: The board of directors rejected the proposed project, explaining that it was too expensive to be feasible at the present moment. 
A. costly 	B. troublesome 	C. capable 	D. practicable 
Question 3: After all these years of good work, Arthur deserves a promotion. 
A. ought to be denied 	B. might be produced 	
C. should be given 	D. could be rejected 
Question 4: The performance of the synchronized swimmers was so brilliant; the judges could find no flaws in it. 
A. find nothing imperfect 	B. award no bonus 	
C. find many mistakes 	D. suggest more improvements 
Question 5: When I visited the city, I was really impressed by the hospitality of the people there. 
A. deeply depressed 	B. fairly concerned 	
C. slightly frightened 	D. deeply moved 
Đáp án
1. D
2. D
3. C
4. A
5. D
Đề tuyển sinh Đại học khối D năm 2014
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) 
Question 1: Those children who stay longer hours at school than at home tend to spend their formative years in the company of others with similar aims and interests. 
A. being separated from peers 	B. forming a new business company 
C. being together with friends 	D. enjoying the care of parents 
Question 2: Many parents may fail to recognize and respond to their children’s needs until frustration explodes into difficult or uncooperative behavior. 
A. slowly reaches the boiling point 	B. remains at an unchanged level 
C. suddenly becomes uncontrollable 	D. stays under pressure 
Question 3: “A friend in need is a friend indeed”: Our friends have voiced their strong criticism of China’s escalation of tension on our continental shelf. 
A. facing the reality 	B. worsening the situation	
C. easing the tension 	D. improving the condition 
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) 
Question 4: Any student who neglects his or her homework is unlikely to do well at school. 
A. puts off 	B. looks for	 C. attends to 	D. approves of 
Question 5: We run a very tight ship here, and we expect all our employees to be at their desks by eight o'clock and take good care of their own business. 
A. manage an inflexible system 	B. have a good voyage
C. run faster than others 	D. organize things inefficiently 
Đáp án
1. C
2. C
3. B
4. C
5. D
Đề tuyển sinh Đại học khối A1 năm 2014
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s).
Question 1: Even though the mountain was very steep and the climb was hazardous, several adventurous tourists managed to reach the top. 
A. causing a lot of risks 	B. bringing excitement 
C. costing a lot of money 	D. resulting in depression 
Question 2: Thanks to the invention of the microscope, biologists can now gain insights into the nature of the human cell. 
A. deep understanding 	B. in-depth studies 	
C. spectacular sightings 	D. far-sighted views 
Question 3: Just like hearing infants who start first with simple syllable babbling, then put more syllables together to sound like real sentences and questions, deaf babies follow the same pattern. 
A. able to hear 	B. physically abnormal 	C. hard of hearing 	D. obedient to parents 
Question 4: Dozens of applicants showed up for the vacant position, but only a handful of them were shortlisted for the interview. 
A. small number 	B. hand 	C. class 	D. small amount 
Question 5: Now many people who shop at a health food store instead of a local supermarket are much more likely to find a healthy, sugar-free beverage. 
A. convenient to prepare 	B. beneficial to health
C. harmful to health 	D. full of preservatives 
Đáp án
1. A
2. A
3. A
4. A
5. B
Đề tuyển sinh Cao đẳng năm 2013
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) .
Question 1: Thirty minutes after the accident, the captain still refused to abandon the burning ship.
A. get on 	B. come to 	C. leave 	D. sail
Question 2: After a few rounds of talks, both sides regarded the territory dispute as settled.
A. discomfort 	B. disadvantage 	C. disapproval 	D. discussion
Question 3: It will be fine tomorrow. But if it should rain tomorrow, the match will be postponed.
A. turned off 	B. put off 	C. sold off 	D. taken off
Question 4: Living in the central Australian desert has its problems, of which obtaining water is not the least.
A. getting 	B. storing 	C. purifying 	D. controlling
Question 5: If the headmaster were here, he would sign your papers immediately.
A. currently 	B. right away 	C. formerly 	D. right ahead
Đáp án
1. C
2. D
3. B
4. A
5. B
Đề tuyển sinh Đại học khối D năm 2014
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) 
Question 1: The works of such men as the English philosophers John Locke and Thomas Hobbes helped pave the way for academic freedom in the modern sense.
A. terminate 	B. prevent 	C. initiate 	D. lighten
Question 2: E-cash cards are the main means of all transactions in a cashless society.
A. cash-starved 	B. cash-strapped 	C. cash-in-hand 	D. cash-free
Question 3: Many scientists agree that global warming poses great threats to all species on Earth.
A. risks 	B. annoyances 	C. fears 	D. irritations
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) 
Question 4: Population growth rates vary among regions and even among countries within the same region.
A. restrain 	B. stay unchanged 	C. remain unstable 	D. fluctuate
Question 5: In some countries, the disease burden could be prevented through environmental improvements.
A. something to suffer 	B. something enjoyable
C. something sad 	D. something to entertain
Đáp án
1. C
2. D
3. A
4. B
5. B
Đề tuyển sinh đại học khối A1 năm 2013
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. 
Question 1: We are now a 24/7 society where shops and services must be available all hours. 
A. an active society 	B. an inactive society 
C. a physical society 	D. a working society 
Question 2: A chronic lack of sleep may make us irritable and reduces our motivation to work. 
A. uncomfortable 	B. responsive 	C. calm 	D. miserable 
Question 3: We'd better speed up if we want to get there in time. 
A. slow down 	B. turn down 	C. put down 	D. lie down 
Question 4: She is a very generous old woman. She has given most of her wealth to a charity organization. 
A. mean 	B. amicable 	C. kind 	D. hospitable 
Question 5: Her thoughtless comments made him very angry. 
A. honest 	B. kind 	C. pleasant 	D. thoughtful 
Đáp án
1. B
2. C
3. A
4. A
5. D
Đề tuyển sinh Cao đẳng năm 2012
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word or phrase that is CLOSEST i

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